All the answers to a clas I was ready to teach for RNs


Table 1: Selected Nursing Diagnoses and Nursing Interventions: Possible Pairings of Nursing Concerns and Complementary/Alternative Interventions
Nursing Diagnosis/concern
Nursing Intervention(s)
Impaired Comfort
Acupressure, TT
to decrease perceived pain
Disturbed Sleep Pattern
to promote relaxation, rest
Social Isolation
Animal-Assisted Therapy
to provide affection
Impaired Coping
to facilitate appreciation of that which is funny, to relieve tensions
Hope instillation
to promote a positive20sense of the future
Spiritual Distress
Spiritual support
to facilitate a sense of inner peace
Spiritual Well-Being
Spiritual growth facilitation
to support growth/reflection reexamination of values
Anxiety or Fear
Guided imagery, relaxation therapy, biofeedback, calming techniques
to reduce sense of anxiety
Impaired Communication
Art therapy
to facilitate expression
Nurses documenting practice using these systems are accomplishing three important things: appropriate documentation of care, identification of work as within the scope of professional nursing, and building a body of knowledge for nurses on the use of specific interventions.
The taxonomies provide both a framework that helps nurses think in a holistic manner about what they are doing as nurses and increased justification for having a nurse perform the activities. The taxonomies themselves are atheoretical, meaning that they are not grounded in any of the nursing theories, they are simply a list of diagnoses, interventions and outcomes. These diagnoses, interventions and outcomes, however, can be used with n ursing theory to guide the reflective interpretation of client conditions and selection of appropriate nursing interventions. Within the framework of nursing taxonomies, the alternative/complementary modalities become part of the nursing process – the documentation of nursing assessments, concerns, interventions and outcomes.
Alternative/complementary modalities are techniques used in healthcare practice to help clients achieve specific outcomes. Techniques, however, are just techniques, and can be used at the level of “doing things” without the reflection, thought, or interpersonal exchange required of and expected from professional nursing. Nurses are in an excellent position to adopt complementary/alternative modalities into practice that addresses assessed client needs and to use these techniques to achieve the goals of nursing. Use of theory and nursing classification systems help nurses use these complementary/alternative modalities professionally. Documentation of these techniques through either nursing theory or current nursing taxonomies makes the practice explicitly that of professional nursing. Care directed by nursing theory and/or care according to a standard nursing taxonomy is care that is generally regarded by the profession as within the domain of nursing. Thus, documentation of care from a nursing framework provides for practice which is recognizable as nursing, and legally defensible as within nursing’s scope of practice. Addtionally, using modalities within nursing practice gives20nurses an enhanced set of tools for practice – making the practice professional, whole and client-centered.
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